• GLOSSARY OF FREQUENTLY USED EDUCATIONAL TERMS 

    provided by Tamara Natoli 

    504: Modifications for those students who may need some support but are not classified. 

    ACCR: Advisory Committee on College Readiness. The ACCR is a group of higher education experts from more than 20 states and education associations that will help PARCC develop assessments that will be accepted as an indicator that a student is ready for college-level work in mathematics and English at both two- and four-year institutions of higher education. 
     
    AESOP: the phone or internet based program where teachers need to register their absences
     
    AFTAmerican Federation of Teachers. NYSUT is New York’s branch of the AFT. NEA, or National Education Association, is another Union for Teachers in the United States, but not the one with which NY is affiliated.  
     
    APP:  application software, also known as an application or an "app", is computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Schooltools is the gradebook App used at Marlboro. Schoolwires is our website App. Schoolwires refers to Apps when they train the different kinds of pages they have available.
     
    APPR: The Annual Professional Performance Review Plan is the process by which New York state teachers and principals are evaluated on a yearly basis. New York State Education Department requires that each public-school entity around the state document their evaluations. Local boards of educations are required to have a plan in place for reviewing the merits of each educator in the public school system.
     
    Artifacts: Objects, such as a design or document, which were created by either the teacher or student. As you develop your APPR, you will be gathering 'artifacts' that demonstrate your competencies in each of the Standards. A good artifact is:
                         1.  Carefully selected
                         2.  Represents the standard
                         3.  Demonstrates your competencies of the standard
                         4.  Presented professionally
                         5.  Personally meaningful 

    Assessments: Method of evaluating student progress, whether by portfolio, tests and quizzes, projects, or in class question

    1.  Formative assessments: range of formal and informal assessment procedures employed by teachers during the learning process to help the formation of future lessons. By using formative assessments, teaching and learning activities can be modified to improve outcomes.
    2.  Summative assessments: Often used for external accountability, summative assessments are a final product, test or project  which determines how much the student ultimately learned.
    Analogy: Formative is when the chef tastes the sauce as he's cooking it.  Summative is when the guest tastes the final product.  The chef makes sure to assess along the way to set up the sauce for success. (thanks, Bill Romito, for sharing.)

    AYP: Adequate Yearly Progress. AYP is a measurement defined by the United States federal No Child Left Behind Act that allows the U.S. Department of Education to determine how every public school and school district in the country is performing academically according to results on standardized tests. Private schools do not have to make AYP.

    Blog: origin of the word is web log, shortened to blog. A type of website or part of a website updated with new content from time to time. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Most good quality blogs are interactive, allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. Many blogs provide commentary on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries.

    CCR: College and Career Readiness. Sometimes seen as CCRS: College and Career Readiness Standards. These are broad standards of what students should be able to do when they graduate high school. The Obama administration’s recent waiver plan for the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) frees states from some of the law’s accountability requirements if they adopt standards for college and career readiness.

    CCSS: Common Core State Standards. These are more specific standards than the CCRS, separated by grade level. 

    CCLS: Common Core Learning Standards. These are the same standards as the CCSS, but individual states are allowed to add more than the CCSS minimum. New York State has CCLSs that include 15% additional standards than the CCSSs. 

    Cohort: A cohort is a collection of individuals who are grouped together in a statistical analysis because they have at least one particular characteristic in common. Educationally, a 4 year cohort rate is how many students enter the district as freshmen and graduate in the normal 4 year time span. 

    Connect Ed: the program used to record a message and have calls made to parents of students in the district.

    Constructivism: Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. There are pros and cons to this educational theory, some of which are further addressed at http://jaime1.blogspot.com/.

    Danielson: from the website, http://charlottedanielson.com/index.htm: "Our Mission: The Danielson Group seeks to advance the understanding and application of Charlotte Danielson’s concepts in the educational community, connect them to other areas of knowledge and enhance professional practices of educators so as to positively impact student learning.” [sic] See also FFT, below.

    Document camera: see ELMO.

    ELMO: A document camera. Document cameras allow you to show 3-D objects, text from a book or a sheet of paper to a whole class. Much like an overhead projector, but eliminating the need for the transparency. Portable Document Cameras are available for loan through the MHTC. (see below)

    Engageny.org: A website designed specifically for New York’s teachers, principals, administrators and Network Teams. Have questions about Common Core standards, data-driven instruction or teacher and leader effectiveness? This is your one-stop shop.
     
    Evidence: The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. Classroom observations should now be based only on evidence, via the following 4 classifications: verbatim scripting, non evaluative comments, numbers, and physical setting.
     
    FFT: Framework for Teaching
    from the website, http://charlottedanielson.com/index.htm : The Framework for Teaching is a research-based set of components of instruction, aligned to the INTASC* standards, and grounded in a constructivist view of learning and teaching. *”The Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) is a consortium of state education agencies and national educational organizations dedicated to the reform of the preparation, licensing, and on-going professional development of teachers. InTASC's primary constituency is state education agencies responsible for teacher licensing, program approval, and professional development. Its work is guided by one basic premise: An effective teacher must be able to integrate content knowledge with the specific strengths and needs of students to assure that all students learn and perform at high levels.” 

    IEP: Individual Education Plan. IEPs are documented in Schooltools (see below) under a puzzle piece icon for those classified students with modifications.

    iPod The most popular brand of portable media player. Can be used as an external storage device for music, pictures, and, depending on the generation of iPod, videos. Can make material portable to students, via iTunes and podcasts.
     
    IT: Information Technology, sometimes simply referred to as the Tech Dept.
     
    iTunes is a free media player computer program, used for playing, downloading, and organizing digital music and video files on desktop computers. It can also manage contents on iPod, iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad. iTunes can connect to the iTunes Store to purchase and download music, music videos, television shows, iPod games, audiobooks, podcasts, movies and movie rentals. It is also used to download application software from the App Store for the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch. iTunes has thousands of educational podcasts, also free. iTunes U, another free section of iTunes, has many classes available via audio or video. These are classes that are offered at top colleges, where the professors have agreed to allow their lessons to be recorded and shared with the public.  
     
    MHRIC The Mid-Hudson Regional Information Center. One of twelve New York State Regional Information Centers that offer technology services to school districts. The MHRIC processes payroll and accounting checks, schedules, grade reports, and New York State standardized tests. MHRIC can train school district personnel in the use of technology.
     
    MHTC: Mid Hudson Teacher Center. The Mid-Hudson Teacher Center is located on the SUNY New Paltz Campus in the Old Main Building, Rooms B117 and B118 (Basement Level). The Teacher Center offers courses for professional development through mylearningplan.com. They are a lending library for  classroom sets of Flip Video Cameras, Handheld GPS Units, I-Pods, MP3 Players, Netbooks, Portable Document Cameras, Student Response Systems (SENTEO), and Sony Digital Readers.
     
    MP3 is the common audio format used for the transfer and playback of music on digital audio players such as the iPod. 

    Mylearningplan.com: an online system designed for the planning, management, and reporting of professional development offerings and appraisal processes. We must use mylearningplan to sign up for any conferences. We must also use this to document our APPR via their OASYS section.

    NCLB: No Child Left Behind. NCLB supports standards-based education reform, which is based on the belief that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes in education. The Act requires states to develop assessments in basic skills to be given to all students in certain grades, if those states are to receive federal funding for schools. The Act does not assert a national achievement standard; standards are set by each individual state. 

    NYSED: New York State Education Department. Creates all regulations and requirements for public schools in NY. See website at www.nysed.gov for more information. 

    New York State Teaching/Teacher Standards: Newly adopted standards for use during the APPR process of evaluating teachers. Teachers will be rated as ineffective, developing, effective, or highly effective, according to a rubric.  The New York State Teaching Standards cover the following items: (for more detailed information, go to engageny.org)

                             1. Knowledge of Students and Student Learning
                             2. Knowledge of Content and Instructional Planning  
                             3. Instructional Practice
                             4. Learning Environment
                             5. Assessment for Student Learning
                             6. Professional Responsibilities and Collaboration
                             7. Professional Growth

    NYSUT New York State United Teachers The Teacher’s Union for the State of New York with whom the MFA are affiliated.

    MFA Marlboro Faculty Association. The name of the branch of NYSUT that is at Marlboro. Our dental and vision plans are provided through the MFA.

    OASYS: An aspect of mylearningplan.com that is specifically for documenting APPR goals, action plans, and artifacts as part of the teacher evaluation system. 

    Olweus: anti bullying program currently being incorporated at the Middle School. 

    PARCC: The Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers. New York State is a member of this consortium, created to develop assessments for the Common Core Standards. New York is one of the Governing Board states, meaning they are directly involved in the planning and implementation of said assessments.

    Peer Assistance and Review: (PAR) Another term for a mentor/mentee system.“PAR ensures (1) that new teachers get the professional development and support they need from experienced, expert teachers; (2) that only capable, well-prepared teachers who meet high entry standards are offered permanent positions; and (3) that unions and experienced teachers help set the standards for all teachers. PAR programs must be devised collaboratively by the district and the union. They must be coherent and ongoing, and must encompass hiring and orientation; intensive professional development, support and mentoring; and a final review that determines whether each aspiring novice meets high standards of practice. In addition, PAR programs must include the following characteristics:
     
    1.  High quality teachers, selected through a fair and quality-conscious process, who are responsible for mentoring and assisting new teachers, preferably on a full-time basis.
    2.  District provided training, time, resources and responsibility for expert teachers to mentor new teachers through at least their probationary period.
    3.  Expert teachers who are responsible for making wise, tough, evidence-based recommendations to decision makers about whether a new teacher merits continuing employment.
    4.  Recommendations that are based on agreed-upon, transparent, evidence-based professional standards.
    5.  Adequate and sustained budget support guaranteed through the regular district budget.” http://www.aft.org/issues/teaching/par/
     
    Performance Standards provide specific performance expectations for each major element. They are the observable behaviors and actions which explain how the element is to be achieved, plus the results that are expected for satisfactory job performance.“Performance standards are:
     
                         1.  Observable, specific indicators of success
                         2.  Meaningful, reasonable and attainable
    ·                    3.  Describe "highly effective" performance or “mastery level”
                         4.  Expressed in terms of Quantity, Quality, Timeliness, Cost, Safety, or Outcomes”                           http://www.indiana.edu/~uhrs/training/performance_management/define.htm
     
    Podcast: A podcast (or non-streamedwebcast) is a series of digital mediafiles (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication. Teachers can create podcasts to summarize their lessons. Students can also create podcasts to reinforce subject matter. Basically podcasts are like radio programs or video shorts which can be shared via the internet.

    Race to the Top: Race to the Top, abbreviated R2T, RTTT or RTT, is a United States Department of Education competition designed to spur reforms in state and local district K-12 education. It is funded by the ED Recovery Act. States were awarded points for satisfying certain educational policies, such as performance-based standards (often referred to as an Annual professional performance review) for teachers and principals, complying with nationwide standards, promoting charter schools, and computerization. 

    RTI: Response to Intervention: a group of staff who meet to address the needs of our At Risk population. There is a referral process if you feel a student needs this kind of support. Previously known as the SST (Student Services Team).

    Rubric is a chart which establishes the categories, requirements and level of standards that a person needs to achieve success. A rubric can provide a basis for self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review. This integration of performance and feedback is called ongoing assessment or formative assessment. A rubric can best support the teaching and learning process when it is shared with the learner at the beginning of task creation or development process. As of November 2011, all teachers at Marlboro are being evaluated by the Rubric that was created by NYSUT, but this may change.

    Schooldudes: the program used for assigning room and building usage. Teachers do not have access to this, but must fill out the appropriate forms for after school hour building use. 

    Schooltools: the program currently used for grading and attendance. Marlboro’s gradebook App. 

    Schoolwires: the program used for creating and maintaining our websites.

    App: a computer term used to identify an application. Typically a small, specialized program downloaded onto mobile devices, but with Schoolwires it is used to refer to a page’s function and usage. 

    SENTEO: Smart (the same company that makes our Smartboards) has since changed the name of Senteo to Smart Response System. Using this, you can create multiple choice interactive activities for your entire class to respond electronically with a handheld device and a Smartboard.